WAEC Literature in English Questions and Answers 2022 (Obj, Prose, Drama & Poetry)

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WAEC Literature Questions and Answers 2023

Friday, 19th May, 2023
Literature-In-English 2 (Prose) – 09:30am – 10:45am
Literature-In-English 1 (Objective) – 10:45am – 11:45am


WAEC Literature in English Objective (Obj) Answers 2023











Massa is Nii Tackie’s sick wife who hails from Sampa. She is an orphan adopted by certain parents. Her terminal disease or aliment seems to defy all forms of treatment because the doctor in charge of the treatment has passed a death sentence on her, she has just few days. The health workers have wished her all the best. Nii has realized that Massa is dying slowly each second. Life has just began to treat both of them well two years before until suddenly she is taken ill.


Fortunately, a friend has recommended them to see a spiritualist, known as “God is beyond science”. This time she is already a shadow of her former self “She was already looking like a grandmother at twenty two” She vomits spits and defecates in her sleeping position owing to the ailment. Nii then takes a bold step to convey her to the spiritualist home and she unfortunately dies on their way. Nii who is already fed up with the hardship in the country and the inability of his bank and teaching job to sustain him, abandons her corpse at the Korofidua mortuary and runs away, until Mama and Joe trace Massa’s corpse to the mortuary and gives her a befitting burial.


Symbolically, Massa represents the living physical condition, political, social and moral decay, she represents the nation in labour, hanging on tenaciously to life by the thinnes of threads, Like the collapsing state of Ghana, looking at her.


Marshak is Nii’s friend who is a fugitive prostitute. Nii met her at the Hotel Irohin while Nii was working as a slave in cassava farm. Her father was shot dead during the revolution at home and all their properties confiscated. The revolutionaries claimed that her father was a reactionary and a saboteur. Her mother and her two sisters were smuggled across the border at Elubo, and they are now in the Ivory Coast. Marshak submits upon meeting Nii. Marshak has made a decision to be a change person and get married someday. She may be a prostitute but the most important thing to her is that she wants to be free. She is looking for an opportunity to mend and redeem herself from a life of filth imposed on her by circumstances at home.


One unfortunate thing happens to Marshak that Nii would live to remember. Marshak finds it difficult to change her ways. She continues to play ball with men, even some immigration officers were her customers. Nii visits her on that fateful day and meets her in the pool of her own blood and he’s informed that she attempts to abort a baby but Nii still believes that she takes her own life.


Prior to her death, when event Nii what’s to have an affair with her, she always remembers her late wife Massa.



The narrator who speaks in the voice of a man in his 40s remembers his youth as the novel opens. He remembers when he has not yet discovered his identity or realized that he was an invisible man. The narrator relates an anecdote concerning his grandfather, who on his death bed shocks his family, revealing himself a spy and a traitor to his race. The narrator then dreams that he’s in the mists of his grandfather that night, who refuses to laugh at the clowns. His grandfather orders him to open the briefcase and read the message contained in an official envelope, the narrator finds that each envelope contains yet, another envelope. In the envelope, instead of scholarship, he finds an engraved document, with the message “To Whom It May Concern, keep This Nigger-Boy Running”. The grandfather’s deathbed scene and advice represent ancestor or ghost of slavery and the need to get rid of the past.

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The advice influenced the narrator who the protagonist and principal character in the novel. His name and true identity is never mentioned. The narrator begins and ends the novel as a type of embodied voice. He addresses his story through the use of the first person narration. At the beginning of the novel, he explains the meaning of this invisibility simply because people refuse to see me…


The narrator is gullible; for he’s easily deceived by the white and other people around him. He should have known that Dr. Bledsoe does not have any good intention for him. When Bledsoe gives the narrator the recommended letters, knowing fully well that Bledsoe initially yells and criticizes the narrator for showing the unpleasant side of the black community to Mr. Norton. The narrator refuses to believe that Dr. Bledsoe is trying to get rid of him through expulsion, little did he know that the letters were not of recommendation, but of rejection.


Before the narrator joins the Brotherhood, he remains extremely innocent and inexperienced. He is prone to think the best of people even when he has reason not to, and he remains constantly respectful of authority. The narrator’s innocence sometimes causes him to misunderstand important events in the novel. For instance, the narrator accepts his scholarship from the brutish white men with gladness. Although, he passes no judgment on the white man’s behavior. The narrator remains vulnerable to the identity that society thrusts upon him as an African- American. He plays the role of the service black man to the white man. He also plays the industrious, uncomplaining disciple of Booker T. Washington during his college year, he agrees to act as the Brotherhood’s black spokesman, which allows the Brotherhood use him.


But the narrator also proves very intelligent and introspective.


Finally, the narrator has retreated to underground, yet in the act of telling a story, the narrator comes to realize the danger of invisibility. He concludes his story determined to honor his own complexity rather than subdue it in the interest of a group of ideology. Though most of the narrator’s difficulties arise from the fact that he’s black. The novelist sees the narrator’s as a universal character- a direct representation of the struggle just like the father.


The Ideology of ‘the brotherhood’ was portrayed through Mr. Jack and the Narrator. Jack is a local leader of the communist party who recruits the narrator to be their speaker. He is also the leader of the Brotherhood, to point out the failures of abstract ideologies to address the real plight of African Americans and other victims of oppression. At first, Jack seems kind, compassionate, intelligent and helpful; a real friend to the struggling narrator whom he gives money, a job and seemingly – a way to help his people fight against prejudice. But as the story progresses, it becomes clear that the narrator is just as invisible to jack as he is to everyone else.


Jack is a manipulator, because he sees the narrator not as a person, but as a tool for the advancement of the Brotherhood goals. It later becomes clear to the narrator that Jack shares the same racial prejudice as the rest of the white American society, and when the Brotherhood’s focus changes, Jack abandons the black community without regret. He is also a cunning man who only uses the narrator to assist the advancement of the Brotherhood.


Brother Jack does not only rob away the narrator’s ideas but also replace them with the Brotherhood ideas. Brother Jack’s literal blindness is a metaphor for the flawed vision he possesses for the brotherhood. Brother Jack is not what the narrator thought he’s and not what we readers think he is.


Brother Jack and the entire Brotherhood use people such as the narrator to build a stronger basis for their organization to fully show case their ideology. Brother Jack uses the narrator also to establish fame of the Brotherhood ideology. Brother Jack does not see the narrator as a friend or as a co-worker, but as a tool for the Brotherhood advancement. This is a perfect example of a person who does things according to his self-interests.




The ideology of brotherhood is a complex and multifaceted concept that evolves throughout the novel. The protagonist, an unnamed African American man, grapples with the challenges of racial identity and seeks genuine connections with others in a racially divided society.

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Unity and Solidarity: The ideology of brotherhood emphasizes the unity and solidarity among marginalized individuals who face oppression and discrimination. The protagonist longs for a sense of brotherhood that transcends racial and social barriers, seeking to connect with others who share his experiences and struggles. He believes in the power of collective action and finds strength in the idea of standing together against injustice.


Identity and Authenticity: The ideology of brotherhood involves embracing one’s authentic self and rejecting the expectations and stereotypes imposed by society. The protagonist navigates a complex journey of self-discovery, grappling with the notion of invisibility and the constraints placed on his identity. He seeks a brotherhood that recognizes and values individuality, allowing each person to express their unique experiences and perspectives.


Empathy and Understanding: Brotherhood in “Invisible Man” is rooted in empathy and understanding. The protagonist yearns for genuine connections where individuals empathize with each other’s struggles and recognize the shared humanity that transcends racial divisions. This ideology challenges the dehumanization and objectification of marginalized communities, emphasizing the importance of listening, learning, and acknowledging the experiences of others.


Political Activism and Social Change: The ideology of brotherhood is intertwined with political activism and the pursuit of social change. The protagonist becomes involved in various political and social organizations, hoping to mobilize collective action and address the systemic issues of racism and inequality. Brotherhood is seen as a means to challenge and dismantle oppressive structures, working towards a more just and equitable society.


Complexity and Contradictions: Ellison presents the ideology of brotherhood as complex and riddled with contradictions. The protagonist encounters various individuals and groups who claim to embody brotherhood but often have conflicting agendas or fail to truly understand his experiences. This exploration highlights the challenges of achieving genuine brotherhood in a world marked by division and competing interests.


Challenging Stereotypes and Prejudices: The ideology of brotherhood challenges stereotypes and prejudices that perpetuate divisions among individuals. The protagonist rejects the idea of categorizing people solely based on their race or societal roles. He believes in the importance of recognizing the complexity and diversity of individual experiences, thus fostering understanding and breaking down barriers.


Collaboration and Cooperation: Brotherhood entails working collaboratively with others to create positive change. The protagonist recognizes the power of collective action and the potential for individuals to make a difference by uniting their efforts. By joining forces, individuals can challenge oppressive systems and work towards a more equitable society.


Redefining Identity: The ideology of brotherhood also involves redefining one’s own identity and rejecting prescribed roles and expectations. The protagonist grapples with notions of visibility and invisibility, seeking to redefine his identity on his own terms rather than conforming to societal expectations. This process of self-discovery and self-definition is intertwined with the pursuit of brotherhood.


Universal Human Connection: The protagonist desires a sense of brotherhood that goes beyond superficial differences. He seeks genuine connections with others based on shared humanity rather than racial or social categorizations. The ideology of brotherhood emphasizes the belief that all individuals, regardless of their backgrounds, possess inherent worth and deserve respect and empathy.


Embracing Individuality: The narrator’s grandfather tells him to “keep up the good fight” and to never allow others to define his worth or diminish his humanity. This advice instills in the narrator a sense of individuality and the importance of asserting his own identity, even in the face of societal pressures to conform. As a result, the narrator strives to assert his independence and find his own voice throughout the novel.


Seeking Success within a Racist Society: The narrator’s grandfather’s advice also guides the narrator’s pursuit of success within a racist society. He advises the narrator to “overcome ’em with yeses, undermine ’em with grins, agree ’em to death and destruction.” This advice suggests that by playing into the expectations of white society, the narrator can find success and navigate the racial barriers that exist. However, the narrator later realizes the limitations and compromises of this approach, leading him to reassess his actions and find alternative paths to empowerment.


Recognizing the Complexity of Identity: The narrator’s grandfather’s advice prompts the narrator to reflect on the complexities of his identity as a Black man in a racially divided society. He grapples with the notion of visibility and invisibility, exploring how his identity is constructed and perceived by others. The advice encourages the narrator to question societal expectations and stereotypes, leading him to explore different roles and personas throughout the novel as he searches for his true identity.

Number 7



“The weather, windows, and setting are often used as symbolic elements throughout the narrative.
The Weather: The weather in “Wuthering Heights” often reflects the tumultuous emotions and intense conflicts within the story. Storms, winds, and harsh weather conditions frequently occur during moments of heightened tension, passion, or turmoil. The weather serves as a metaphor for the characters’ turbulent emotions and the dark, brooding atmosphere of the novel. For example, stormy weather often coincides with intense confrontations or emotional outbursts, emphasizing the passionate and volatile nature of the characters’ relationships.
The Windows: Windows are used as a symbolic device to represent boundaries, barriers, and glimpses into the outside world. They serve as a means of communication between characters who are physically separated or belong to different social classes. Windows often become sites of longing and desire, as characters yearn to connect with one another or escape their current circumstances. They can also represent the divide between the civilized world and the untamed nature of the moors, highlighting the clash between society’s expectations and the wild, passionate spirits of the characters.
The Setting: The setting of “Wuthering Heights,” particularly the contrasting locations of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, represents the clash between nature and civilization, passion and propriety. Wuthering Heights, situated on the bleak and rugged moors, embodies a wild and untamed environment, mirroring the passionate and unruly nature of its inhabitants. In contrast, Thrushcross Grange represents order, refinement, and social norms. The contrast between these two settings reflects the dichotomy between Heathcliff and Catherine’s intense, primal love and the societal expectations and constraints they encounter.
Overall, the use of the weather, windows, and setting as symbols in “Wuthering Heights” adds depth and enhances the themes of passion, conflict, and the struggle between nature and civilization. These symbols contribute to the atmospheric and emotional impact of the story, emphasizing the intensity of the characters’ relationships and the underlying tensions within the narrative.


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How To Pass Waec Literature In English 2023/2023

If you want to write this WAEC Literature in English in 2023 and obtain a full mark, then use these tricks.

  1. Make good use of the recommended Literature Novels for 2023
  2. Identify all the keywords and key concept in each novel.
  3. Take note of the themes of each novel, poem, or prose listed for the exam.
  4. Study and take note of the statements made by major characters.
  5. Keep note of the names of the Authors, the Poets or writers of each text that you read.
  6. Finally, make sure you know the content of each of the text and also be able to narrate each text.

WAEC Literature Recommended Books and Novels for 2023 WAEC Literature Examination

African Prose

  • AmmaDarko – Faceless
  • BayoAdebowale – Lonely Days.

Non-African Prose

  • Richard Wright – Native Son
  • Patience Swift – The Last Goodman
  • *William Shakespeare – OTHELLO.

Non-African Drama

  • Oliver Goldsmith – She Stoops to conquer
  • Lorraine Hansberry – A Raisin in the Sun.

African Drama

  • Frank Ogodo Ogbeche – Harvest of Corruption
  • Dele Charley – The Blood of a Stranger.

African Poetry

  • Birago Drop – Vanity
  • Gbemisola Adeoti – Ambush
  • Gabriel Okara – Piano and Drums
  • Gbanabam Hallowell – The Dinning Table
  • Lenrie Peter – The Panic of Growing Older
  • Kofi Awoonor – The Anvil and the Hammer.

Non-African Poetry

  • Alfred Tennyson – Crossing the Bar
  • George Herbert – The pulley
  • William Blake – The School Boy
  • William Morris – The Proud King
  • Robert Frost Birches – Birches
  • William Shakespeare – Shall I compare thee to a Summer’s Day?


The Unseen Prose passage for Paper 1 shall be about 120 – 150 words long.
Only context questions shall be set on the Shakespearean text. The context questions will test such items as theme, characterization, style and setting in the Shakespearean text.
No essay question shall be set on the Shakespearean text.

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